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To a certain extent this will depend on the knowledge representation chosen.
Although a good knowledge representation scheme has to allow easy, natural and
plausible reasoning. Listed below are very broad methods of how we may reason.
We will study specific instances of some of these methods in the next few
- Formal reasoning
- -- Basic rules of inference with logic knowledge
- Procedural reasoning
- -- Uses procedures that specify how to
perhaps solve (sub) problems.
- Reasoning by analogy
- -- Humans are good at this, more difficult for AI
systems. E.g. If we are asked Can robins fly?. The system might reason
that robins are like sparrows and it knows sparrows can fly so ...
- Generalisation and abstraction
- -- Again humans effective at this. This
is basically getting towards learning and understanding methods.
- Meta-level reasoning
- -- Once again uses knowledge about about what you
know and perhaps ordering it in some kind of importance.