TCP/IP Layer Name Encapsulation Units TCP/IP Protocols
Application data FTP, HTTP, POP3, IMAP, telnet, SMTP, DNS, TFTP
Transport segments TCP, UDP
Internet packets IP
Network Access frames, bits


TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) is a basic protocol in the global Internet network. TCP / IP protocol is complex, which consists of the other protocols. The first and most important of them is the IP (Internet Protocol). IP protocol technology used to exchange information, called packet switching. In packet switching, data from a message sent from one computer to another separate packages. Each packet contains part of the message and service information, such as address of the computer the recipient address of the computer that sends the message. Individual packets are sent to the network. Depending on the network load, the path of the packages may be different. The movement in your packets are routed by routers. When all packets arrive at the receiving computer, the overhead is removed and received the original message. Use two versions of IP protocol - IPv4 and IPv6. IPv4 uses 32-bit IP addresses and IPv6 - 128 bit. Accordingly, the structure of the packets is different. See: Structure of the IP packet (IPv4), Structure of the IP packet (IPv6) IPv4 address as a sequence of four decimal numbers separated by periods. The first number is the most senior octet (byte), the following are junior bytes. Example: IPv4 address IPv6 addresses are written as a sequence of eight hexadecimal numbers separated by colons. If the address has several zeros, they can miss being in two colons. Example: IPv6 address

  • TCP / IP works with logical IP addresses using flexible addressing scheme. When it is possible to route packets of information, so that they pass by the shortest route to your destination.
  • Almost all operating systems can use the protocol TCP / IP.
  • There are utilities that work with this protocol.
  • This is the protocol of the global Internet network. Each computer that connects to the Internet works with this protocol.