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## The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)

The discrete cosine transform (DCT) helps separate the image into parts (or spectral sub-bands) of differing importance (with respect to the image's visual quality). The DCT is similar to the discrete Fourier transform: it transforms a signal or image from the spatial domain to the frequency domain (Fig 7.8). DCT Encoding

The general equation for a 1D (N data items) DCT is defined by the following equation: and the corresponding inverse 1D DCT transform is simple F-1(u), i.e.:

where The general equation for a 2D (N by M image) DCT is defined by the following equation: and the corresponding inverse 2D DCT transform is simple F-1(u,v), i.e.:

where The basic operation of the DCT is as follows:

• The input image is N by M;
• f(i,j) is the intensity of the pixel in row i and column j;
• F(u,v) is the DCT coefficient in row k1 and column k2 of the DCT matrix.
• For most images, much of the signal energy lies at low frequencies; these appear in the upper left corner of the DCT.
• Compression is achieved since the lower right values represent higher frequencies, and are often small - small enough to be neglected with little visible distortion.
• The DCT input is an 8 by 8 array of integers. This array contains each pixel's gray scale level;
• 8 bit pixels have levels from 0 to 255.

• Therefore an 8 point DCT would be:

where Question: What is F[0,0]?

answer: They define DC and AC components.

• The output array of DCT coefficients contains integers; these can range from -1024 to 1023.

• It is computationally easier to implement and more efficient to regard the DCT as a set of basis functions which given a known input array size (8 x 8) can be precomputed and stored. This involves simply computing values for a convolution mask (8 x8 window) that get applied (summ values x pixelthe window overlap with image apply window accros all rows/columns of image). The values as simply calculated from the DCT formula. The 64 (8 x 8) DCT basis functions are illustrated in Fig 7.9. DCT basis functions

• Why DCT not FFT?

DCT is similar to the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), but can approximate lines well with fewer coefficients (Fig 7.10) DCT/FFT Comparison

• Computing the 2D DCT

• Factoring reduces problem to a series of 1D DCTs (Fig 7.11):

• apply 1D DCT (Vertically) to Columns
• apply 1D DCT (Horizontally) to resultant Vertical DCT above.
• or alternatively Horizontal to Vertical.

The equations are given by: • Most software implementations use fixed point arithmetic. Some fast implementations approximate coefficients so all multiplies are shifts and adds.

• World record is 11 multiplies and 29 adds. (C. Loeffler, A. Ligtenberg and G. Moschytz, "Practical Fast 1-D DCT Algorithms with 11 Multiplications", Proc. Int'l. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 1989 (ICASSP `89), pp. 988-991)   Next: Differential Encoding Up: Source Coding Techniques Previous: Relationship between DCT and
Dave Marshall
10/4/2001